Modern chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for improved incorporation of nano‐scale additives into solid propellants. Various. Kumar Ishitha, P. A. Ramakrishna. () Activated charcoal: as burn rate modifier and its mechanism of action in non-metalized composite solid propellants. The combustion of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants containing ne ammonium perchlo- rate (AP) was investigated using laser-excited, .

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The activation energy determined by applying these methods is sp sum of activation energies pgopellants chemical reactions and physical processes in thermal decomposition and therefore it is called apparent. The composite propellant was produced in a batch process of 5 kg mass pilot plant using a planetary mixer under vacuum atmosphere during 2 hours. This aging process can be responsible for the appearance of failures and cracks in the grains, which compromise the propellant performance.

It means that the increasing of nano-CuO dispersibility in Lropellants propellant not only decreases the decomposition temperature, but also decreases the deviation of decomposition temperature. Wikipedia references cleanup from April All articles needing references cleanup Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from April All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify Articles lacking in-text citations from September All articles lacking in-text citations Articles with multiple maintenance issues.

The propellant is most often composed of ammonium perchlorate APan elastomer binder such as hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene HTPB or polybutadiene acrylic acid acrylonitrile prepolymer PBANpowdered metal typically aluminumand various burn rate catalysts. These conditions are necessary because differences in the raw materials, as ammonium perchlorate AP particle size, can affect the thermal decomposition behavior hypb the composite.

Journal of Nanomaterials

The combustion mechanism of AP has been studied and modified. It means that the propellants in Table 6 could be show higher explosion heat and more steady explosive procedures than samples in Table 5.


The mean value of combustion heat in Table 3 is increased steadily with the kneading time increase. The motor casing and closures are typically bought separately from the motor manufacturer and are often precision-machined from aluminum.

The differences found in the kinetics parameters between the original and the aged samples, specially the activation energy Eaconfirm the practical observation that energetic materials like the composites used in solid propellant pripellants motors require less energy to start the combustion process as they age.

However, most researches tend to focus on the catalysis of the diameter or variety of nanomaterials [ 23 ].

As the surface of the propellant burns the shape evolves a subject of study in internal ballisticsmost often changing the propellant surface area exposed to the combustion gases. Also, in the gas phases, it is assumed that all of the liquid AP and HTPB present on the condensed phase decompose to form gaseous species; evaporation is not included.

August 6th Published: Several geometric configurations are often used depending on the application and desired thrust curve:.

With the similar tendency of Table 1the mean value of decomposition temperature and RSD value in Table 2 decrease dramatically with the increase of kneading time of HTPB propellant, from to and from 3. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. First, nano-CuO was dispersed in ethanol by ultrasonic. The values of the activation energy were found to be Therefore, the materials may suffer many different changes in their structure or properties.

Most catalysts in the composite propellant act on the composition of AP. January 23rd DOI: Empirically, APCP adheres fairly well to the following power-function model:. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Less RSD value is the stand of less change, or less instability, of the explosion heat releasing of the propellant sample. The table below shows the elementary reactions which take part on the combustion process. And the thermal decomposition temperatures are much lower than the low decomposition temperature of blank sample.


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Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant – Wikipedia

As nanocatalysts likely perform much higher catalysis efficiency than microcatalysts, the dispersibility of nanocatalysts is much important than that of microcatalysts. In addition, colored formulations are available to display reds, greens, blues, and even black smoke. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfurnot only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed.

They were both derived from the basic kinetic equations for heterogeneous chemical reactions and therefore have a wide application, as it is not necessary to know the reaction order [ 19 ] or the conversional function to determine the kinetic parameters. The nanometer catalysts show excellent catalysis on the thermal decomposition of AP. The propellant particle size distribution has a profound impact on APCP rocket motor performance. In recent years, there has been an explosion of interest in the synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of nanomaterials, mainly because of the fact that materials confined in one or more dimension can exhibit interesting properties, such as catalysis.

Seven different heating rates were used for the non-aged samples: In Table 5the explosion heat of propellant with simple mixed nano-CuO is increased with the increase of kneading time, while the STD and RSD of explosion heat decreased.